Home » INTERNATIONAL MARINE LITTER DATABASE » Year of publication » 2013 » Numerical estimation of inflow flux of floating natural macro-debris into Tokyo Bay
T. Kataoka, H. Hinata, Y. Nihei, Numerical estimation of inflow flux of floating natural macro-debris into Tokyo Bay, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 134, 1 December 2013, Pages 69-79, ISSN 0272-7714, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2013.09.005. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771413004046) Abstract: We numerically estimated the inflow flux of terrestrial grass, which is the main floating macro-debris, into Tokyo Bay from April 2008 to March 2009 based on a two-way particle-tracking model and an inverse method applying a Lagrange multiplier. In the estimation, we used surface current velocities derived by high-frequency ocean radar and the quantity of grass collected by clean-up vessels which are operated daily in the bay. At least 2115 m3 yr−1 of the grass flowed into the bay annually, and the contribution of a flood event to the inflow flux of grass was larger than that of the inflow flux of freshwater. We show that 39% of the annual inflow flux of grass into the bay was collected, and 61% flowed out of the bay or sank to the seabed. The numerical estimation in this study will be useful to establish a system for predicting patches of floating macro-debris in the bay, and to evaluate the effects of river development or clean-up along river banks and flood plains in the upper reaches. http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/artscience/2013/11/artists-join-scientists-on-an-expedition-to-collect-marine-debris/ November 21, 2013 Artists Join Scientists on an Expedition to Collect Marine Debris Washed up on the remote beaches of southern Alaska are plastics of every shape, size and color. There are detergent bottles, cigarette lighters, fishing nets and buoys, oil drums, fly swatters and Styrofoam balls in various states of decay. They come from around the world, adrift in rotating sea currents called gyres, and get snagged in the nooks and crannies of Alaska’s shoreline. Set against a backdrop of trees, grizzly bears and volcanic mountains, these plastics are eye-catching, almost pretty—and yet they are polluting the world’s oceans. The garbage, dubbed “marine debris” by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, wreaks havoc on marine ecosystems. It destroys habitats, transports nonnative species, entangles and suffocates wildlife. Animals mistake the garbage for food and, feeling full, starve to death with bellies full of junk. For humans, the problem is more than cosmetic; marine debris endangers our food supply. In June 2013, a team of artists and scientists set out to see the blight firsthand. Expedition GYRE, a project of the Anchorage Museum and the Alaska SeaLife Center, traveled 450 nautical miles along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska to observe, collect and study marine debris. A companion exhibition, opening in February 2014 at the Anchorage Museum, will showcase artworks made using ocean debris. For the artists on the GYRE expedition, each day in Alaska was filled with scientific briefings, trash reconnaissance and individual pursuits. All four artists—Mark Dion, Pam Longobardi, Andy Hughes and Karen Larsen—are known for work that explores environmental themes and, more or less explicitly, the pleasures and perils of plastic.